Leadership Definition
There are lots of definitions and interpretations for the term LEADERSHIP. One is “A relationship through which one person influences the behaviour or actions of other people” (Mullins, L.J. 2002, Management and Organisational Behaviour, 6th Edition, FT Publishing, p904). Another popular definition would be, “the process of influencing an organization or groups within an organization in its efforts towards achieving a goal” (Johnson, Scholes & Whittington, 2005, Exploring Corporate Strategy, 7th Edition, FT Prentice Hall, p.519)
Leadership Theories on Behaviour
To me, leaders are constantly surrounding us. People constantly need to be led and they seek out individuals around them who have personalities that stand out – the basic qualities of leadership, the Great Man Theory. This could be in terms of their appearance, knowledge, charisma, behaviour or style. For example, popular actors/actresses might not be great leaders but they influence the thoughts of people through advertisements through their appearance and charisma. Leadership is also a process where trust of people needs to be gained and established before followers are doing things willingly and without having to use pressure. Managers are different in this aspect, as they are given authority/power and trust factor might not be required to actively participate in management, subordinates might not be performing their tasks willingly. The above idea is adopted from the most recent leadership definition by Manfred Kets de Vries, he defines leadership style as the point of interaction between the leader’s character, the follower’s character and the situation. (Manfred Kets de Vries, The Leadership Mystique, Financial Times Prentice Hall, 2001) To gain people’s trust, the first steps is to communicate, Warren Bennis observed the significance of rhetoric and eloquent, “Effective leaders put words to the formless longings and deeply felt needs of others. They create communities out of words.” (Bennis Warren, An Invented Life: Reflections on Leadership and Change, Reading, Mass, Addison-Wesly, 1993)
The Traits theory, otherwise known as the Great Man theory, is the origination of leadership theories. This theory believes that there is a unique set of qualities for a leader, mainly: his intelligence and ability to judge, his knowledge power, self-confidence and dependability, his sociability and adaptability, lastly, his popularity status. Thus, it is believed that leaders are born and not made while managers are made and not born. We shall reflect the above theories in two great leaders: Sir Winston Churchill and Adolf Hitler.

Their Similarities in Behaviour
Sir Winston Churchill and Adolf Hitler have many similar qualities; these qualities enabled them to be most influential people of their time. Churchill and Hitler are both very determined and modest; they worked tirelessly for their countries and causes they represent. Both have an eye for details, Churchill would require an extensive walkthrough of the departments under his lead for every new post he takes up, while Hitler had an incredible memory for details, every point made must be correct and consistent with previous briefings or he would be annoyed with the discrepancies. They are intelligent, excellent public speakers and most importantly, they have the self-belief and confidence to continue to fight for their cause (both reasons are at the extreme of each other). Their confidences were not influenced by their failures.

Their Differences in Behaviour
Adolf Hitler had motivated thousands of people to action for his cause. He inspired powerful emotional loyalty in his followers – the loyalty that spawned the intense effort and sacrifice among his followers. Hitler’s ideas may have been illogical but the fact is he convinced people that these were ideas worth listening and living for. He has charisma, confidence and excellent speaking skills to make people believe in him and his cause. In fact, the extent of his self-believe and confidence is unbelievable; he has little room for doubt concerning his own greatness – he believes he can never be wrong.
Churchill lacks charisma, however, he more than made up for it with his inspiration and vision, and his anticipations of changes to come were uncanny. As a writer, he wrote about the future of nuclear weapons and how warfare would change – 20 years before WWII. Sir Winston was also a great innovator and has a great appetite for change -at that era, the structure of British Government is based

A Tale Of Two Cities

Doctor Manettes Role In A Tale of Two Cities
James Kosky
College English 249-09
Mr. Walsh
December 19, 2000

Kosky 1
James Kosky
Mr. Walsh
College English
December 19, 2000
Doctor Manettes Role in A Tale of Two Cities
Individual characters often exist as the heart of the novel. They contain dynamic characteristics and occupy a central position in the novel. In A Tale of Two Cities Charles Dickens uses Doctor Manette as the core of his novel, Doctor Manette is a worthy hero and a crucial piece in the puzzle(Glancy 75). His personality and story thrusts him into the spotlight throughout the book. The novel revolves around his character.
A Tale of Two Cities evolved from Doctor Manettes story. He has witnessed the aftermath of a rape and assault committed by two twin nobles, the Evrmondes, and is forbidden to speak of it; the things that you see here are things to be seen and not spoken of (Dickens 325). But when Manette tries to report these crimes he is locked up in the Bastille. The novel is then built up through Doctor Manettes cruel and unjustified imprisonment and the events following his release from prison(Lindsay 103). That is how he becomes the core of the novel.
Upon the opening of the novel Dr. Manette is a weak and horrific man. He is a man recalled to life (Dickens 24) from an eighteen-year imprisonment and has the appearance of an aged man having white hair and a ragged face; he is a ghost, the empty shell of a man (Glancy 69). He is very confused, so confused he cannot recall any of his past or even
Kosky 2
remember his name. The experience of oppressive misery has not merely twisted himit has broken down the whole system of memory in his psyche (Lindsay 104). He is a mere victim of the past. Dr. Manette has been driven mad, broken and goaded into a destroying curse, by eighteen years of unjust imprisonment in the Bastille (Johnson 30). He is too accustomed to imprisonment to be able to bear freedom, which was true of many prisoners during the Revolution. But he is resurrected at the sight of his daughter, who stimulates the memory of his wife with her threads of gold, or her golden hair. It is the likeness between Lucie and her mother that brings him back from the dead. Lucie Manette is the primary reconciler and preserver- her golden thread represents an attempt to weave together factions (Kucich 68). Doctor Manette is brought back to physical and mental health due to one person, his daughter.
Doctor Manette continues to be a dual personality, half Lucies father, restored to life, half her mothers husband, the ghostly dug-up remains of an eighteen year burial (Glancy 70). Because of the presence of his daughter in his life, Doctor Manette was able to retain the life he once knew, a life of mental stability and becomes the man once known by Lucies mother, and the sound of her Lucie voice, the light of her face, the touch of her hand, had a strong beneficial influence with him Doctor Manette (Dickens 76). Even when he is just around Lucie he becomes a totally different man, on his speaking to his daughter-he became a handsome man, not past the prime of his life (Dickens 73). Lucie is a devoted daughter and takes good care of her father and Doctor Manette would do just about anything for his daughter, if there were any fancies, any reasons, any apprehensions, anything whatsoever,
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new or old, against the man she Lucie really loved- the direct responsibility thereof not lying on his head- they should all be obliterated for her sake. She is everything to me; more to me than suffering, more to me than wrong(Dickens 162-163). Doctor Manette is willing to sacrifice his happiness for Charles Darnay and his daughter. Manette even pushes aside his natural antipathy (Dickens 413) towards the Evrmonde family, whom Darnay is an ancestor of. But Doctor Manette is still reminded of his dreadful experience in the Bastille and relapses into a terrible physical and mental state that only Lucie can cure.

These lapses are beyond the doctors control, though


On a cold day in April of 1984, a man named Winston Smith returns to his home, a dilapidated apartment building called Victory Mansions. Thin, frail, and thirty-nine years old, it is painful for him to trudge up the stairs because he has a varicose ulcer above his right ankle. The elevator is always out of service so he does not try to use it. As he climbs the staircase, he is greeted on each landing by a poster depicting an enormous face, underscored by the words “BIG BROTHER IS WATCHING YOU.”
Winston is an insignificant official in the Party, the totalitarian political regime that rules all of Airstrip Onethe land that used to be called Englandas part of the larger state of Oceania. Though Winston is technically a member of the ruling class, his life is still under the Party’s oppressive political control. In his apartment, an instrument called a telescreenwhich is always on, spouting propaganda, and through which the Thought Police are known to monitor the actions of citizensshows a dreary report about pig iron. Winston keeps his back to the screen. From his window he sees the Ministry of Truth, where he works as a propaganda officer altering historical records to match the Party’s official version of past events. Winston thinks about the other Ministries that exist as part of the Party’s governmental apparatus: the Ministry of Peace, which wages war; the Ministry of Plenty, which plans economic shortages; and the dreaded Ministry of Love, the center of the Inner Party’s loathsome activities.


From a drawer in a little alcove hidden from the telescreen, Winston pulls out a small diary he recently purchased. He found the diary in a secondhand store in the proletarian district, where the very poor live relatively unimpeded by Party monitoring. The proles, as they are called, are so impoverished and insignificant that the Party does not consider them a threat to its power. Winston begins to write in his diary, although he realizes that this constitutes an act of rebellion against the Party. He describes the films he watched the night before. He thinks about his lust and hatred for a dark-haired girl who works in the Fiction Department at the Ministry of Truth, and about an important Inner Party member named O’Briena man he is sure is an enemy of the Party. Winston remembers the moment before that day’s Two Minutes Hate, an assembly during which Party orators whip the populace into a frenzy of hatred against the enemies of Oceania. Just before the Hate began, Winston knew he hated Big Brother, and saw the same loathing in O’Brien’s eyes.

Winston looks down and realizes that he has written “DOWN WITH BIG BROTHER” over and over again in his diary. He has committed thoughtcrimethe most unpardonable crimeand he knows that the Thought Police will seize him sooner or later. Just then, there is a knock at the door.

The first few chapters of 1984 are devoted to introducing the major characters and themes of the novel. These chapters also acquaint the reader with the harsh and oppressive world in which the novel’s protagonist, Winston Smith, lives. It is from Winston’s perspective that the reader witnesses the brutal physical and psychological cruelties wrought upon the people by their government. Orwell’s main goals in 1984 are to depict the frightening techniques a totalitarian government (in which a single ruling class possesses absolute power) might use to control its subjects, and to illustrate the extent of the control that government is able to exert. To this end, Orwell offers a protagonist who has been subject to Party control all of his life, but who has arrived at a dim idea of rebellion and freedom.

Unlike virtually anyone else in Airstrip One, Winston seems to understand that he might be happier if he were free. Orwell emphasizes the fact that, in the world of Airstrip One, freedom is a shocking and alien notion: simply writing in a diaryan act of self-expressionis an unpardonable crime. He also highlights the extent of government control by describing how the Party watches its members through the giant telescreens in their

The baroque has been called a theatrical style, on

e that deals in spectacle, grandeur, and dramatic contrast. Test these concepts in an essay that discusses the baroque as an expression of the Catholic Reformation, Protestant devotionalism, the Scientific Revolution, and the Age of Absolutism. Define your general statements with specific examples.

The following essay will discuss the baroque period and how the Catholic Reformation, Protestant devotionalism, and the Scientific Revolution influenced it. The Baroque period generally refers to the years 1600 to1750. Classicism of the Renaissance has been replenished during the Baroque period. During the Baroque artistic period, the exploration of the fundamental components of human nature and the realm of senses and emotions were very crucial. The Baroque era was a very dynamic time that showed an abundance of radiance and color. Artists of this time were passionate and sensual. Their works were many times considered to have an overpowering emotional effect. The superficial form of light was fascinated during this period due to the thoughts of godlike sun or the truth of the Holy Spirit. The Baroque naturalism maintains the religious themes in content. The elements of perception in the Baroque art are how we perceived the natural human figures are in motion through space, time, and light. We present and analyze the extent of human actions and passions in all its degrees of lightness, darkness, and intensity.

The scientific revolution also had a tremendous impact on art during this time. Scientists started to study the earth and its positioning in the universe. This was a time when the people started take more of an interest in astronomy and mathematical equations.

During the time of the Catholic Reformation artists began to challenge all the rules that society has set for artistic design. Artist starting with Parmigianino, Tintoretto, and El Greco began to add a wide variety of colors into their paintings, challenging the way things have been done in the past. These artists also added abnormal figures or altered the proportions in paintings. This is displayed in Parmigianinos painting, Madonna of the long neck. During this time the Catholic Church was in a transition period moving from their recent reputation and becoming a well-respected organization. During this reform, an autobiography written by Layola about Saint Teresa of Avila set a new tone for Catholics to follow. This influenced people to have a more spiritual outlook on life.

Protestantism also played a huge part in the development of the baroque style. Protestantism had a strong scriptural and devotional emphasis with rising commercialism. Artists during this time started to concentrate on personal issues instead of religious displays. Poetry became another way of expression during this era. Poets like John Milton produced works that depicted morality, evil, and death. Johann Sebastian Bach and George F. Handel influenced the baroque period with oratorio musical designs depicting a scriptural narrative.

The baroque period was a time of change. From the reformation of the Catholic Church, the new expression of the Scientific Revolution, and the new ideas Protestant devotionalism society experienced a varying degree of changes that impacted life, art, and entertainment that we know today.

History of Cell Membrane

In the early stages of the twentieth century, little was known about cell membranes. Until the early 1950s, the biological cell membrane was rarely mentioned in scientific literature. It was recognised that something was probably there, but hardly anything about it was known. Considering the lack of technical equipment available a century ago, scientists such as Charles Overton and Edwin Gorter were not only exploring new territory in looking at the properties of cell membranes, but laying the way for future cell biologists. Scientists had to wait another fifty years for the discovery of the electron microscope, let alone seventy years for the advent of freeze fracturing techniques.

Nageli and Cramer in 1855 had already suggested that biological cells are separated from their environment by a membrane possessing special characteristics, and in 1900 Overton performed some simple but classical experiments which proposed that cell membranes were composed of lipids (1). By measuring the permeability of various compounds across the membrane of a frog muscle, Overton found some interesting results. He observed that lipophilic molecules (molecules attracted to fat solvents) could easily cross this cell membrane, however larger lipid insoluble molecules could not. He also observed that small polar molecules could slowly cross the membrane. Other experiments with the likes of hen eggs suggested the presence of a lipid layer in the membrane. These results became known to biologists across the world and it was generally accepted that a semi-permeable lipid membrane surrounded some if not all cells (2).

Although this was opening new doors for cell biologists, the information was widely disregarded. One hundred years ago biological fact was based on what could be seen and since the proposed lipid membrane was smaller than the wavelength of visible light it could not be studied under the light microscope. Most biologists merely concerned themselves with more evident structures. However, some scientists continued to dedicate their time to examining this invisible structure.

Two such biologists were the Dutch Edwin Gorter and F. Grendel. They recognised in 1925 that two such lipid layers existed. Whilst working on red blood cells they showed the first detailed analysis of structure based on a new model. They extracted the lipid from a red blood cell and spread it as a film on water. The area covered by the lipid turned out to be twice the surface area of the red blood cell. Gorter and Grendel thus concluded that in a cell membrane phospholipids must be arranged as a bilayer, i.e. two lipid molecules thick (4).

Expansion Of Nato

NATO starts the year 2000 with the issue of concern. The European Allies’ defense capability, stabilization efforts in the Balkans, and relations with Russia are at the top of a highly charged agenda.

In 1999 NATO accomplished many tasks, which were reviewed in the December 15th Washington Summit. They approved an updated Strategic Concept at the Washington Summit; admitted as new members the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Poland; contributed decisively, in particular through the conduct of their air campaign and the subsequent deployment of KFOR (NATO-led international peace force), to the international community’s objective of creating the basis for long-term peace and stability in Kosovo.

What is NATO? NATO is the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. The North Atlantic Treaty was signed in Washington on April 4th, 1949, creating an alliance of 12 independent nations committed to each other’s defense. Four more European nations later acceded to the Treaty between 1952 and 1982. The now 19 members of NATO include Belgium, Canada, *Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, *Hungary, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, *Poland, Portugal, Spain, Turkey, United Kingdom, and the United States. (*Members since March 12, 1999) These countries commit themselves to maintaining and developing their defense capabilities, individually, and collectively, providing the basis for collective defense planning. The Treaty also provides the framework for consultation between the member countries whenever they feel that their national security is at risk.

Over the past few years, Russia and Ukraine have developed special independent relationships with the Alliance. This enables them to pursue, in different ways, cooperative programs on a wide range of practical security-related issues of benefit to their countries and to Europe as a whole. Both countries are members of the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council (EAPC). NATO continues to attach importance to discussions and practical co-operation with Russia. Their aim remains to establish a strong, stable and enduring partnership within the framework of the NATO-Russia Founding Act.

NATO encourages Russia to resume co-operation on the broad range of issues foreseen in the Founding Act and to engage actively in the EAPC and the Partnership for Peace. NATO also emphasizes that the further development of their co-operation depends on Russia’s respect for international norms and obligations.

There are still concerns about the conflict in Chechnya. NATO condemns, in particular, Russian threats against unarmed civilians, such as those in Grozny. They also condemn terrorism in all its forms but believe that Russia’s pursuit of a purely military solution to the conflict is undermining its objectives. NATO urges Russia to exercise the fullest restraint, to refrain from the use of force against civilians and protect their human rights, to facilitate the provision of humanitarian aid to those in need, and to co-operate fully with international relief agencies and to ensure security for their operations. Keeping in mind the importance of regional stability and respect for the territorial integrity and sovereignty of neighboring states, they are concerned about the impact of the crisis of the entire Caucasus region and stress the need to avoid steps that would further undermine regional security.

Should NATO be open to expansion? NATO has always had an open door policy to the membership of new countries into the Alliance. In fact, NATO encourages countries to apply for membership. At the Washington Summit, NATO Heads of State and Government approved a Membership Action Plan (MAP) to reinforce NATO’s commitment to the openness of the Alliance. The report to date says that they are pleased that the MAP process has made an effective start and met with a positive response of the nine aspiring countries. Candidates have submitted annual national programs that enable the Alliance to provide them with direct advice, feedback, and assistance on their preparations for possible future membership.

At the Washington Summit the leaders of NATO took steps necessary to ensure that the Alliance will remain the bedrock of its collective defense, and continue to play a key role in the development of a secure and stable peace in the Euro-Atlantic area. As NATO enters the 21st century, they can confidently say that they are ready for the future.

Farmland Industries Inc.

Today, when we hear the slogans “better farming, better food,” or “proud to
be farmer owned” one company comes to mind, Farmland Industries. We may
think of this of this fortune 500 company as a leading agricultural
powerhouse, which it is, however, it was not always that way.

Farmland Industries Inc. was founded by Howard A. Cowden, who was born and
raised in Southwestern Missouri. Cowden started young in the cooperative
business by working for the Missouri Farmers Association (MFA). However; in
October of 1927, he had resigned from the position of secretary for the MFA
and started out on his own. Immediately following, Cowden received the MFA
oil contract that previously had been held with Standard Oil Company, and
Cowden was now in the wholesale oil business. On January 27, 1928, Cowden
Oil Company was founded. This business was moved to Kansas City, Missouri
in late 1928.

In January of 1929, Cowden Oil Company was dissolved and Union Oil Company
(Cooperative) was formed. It was clear that Cowden had planned to do more
than just buy and sell oil to local cooperatives. A board of directors was
created to run the company, yet Cowden retained full control over the
company that he had created. Cowden started recruiting smaller companies to
join their cooperative by signing contracts to sell certain amounts of
Unions products. In 1929, Union Oil Company had purchased its first land.

“The Two Car Garage,” as it is referred to, was the building that they had
purchase to become their new home.

In 1935, Union Oil Company changed its name to Consumers Cooperative
Association (CCA). CO-OP was decided to be its official logo. In October
of 1956, CCA moved to their new home on North Oak Trafficway, in Kansas
City, and the company was ready for major business. In June of 1961, Howard
A. Cowden retired as President of CCA and Homer Young stepped in to fill
his shoes.

In early to mid 1966, CCA changed its name again. This time to Farmland
Industries, Inc., however; they still kept that CO-OP symbol for a
trademark. CCA now emphasized much of its business to fertilizer, petroleum
and commercial feed. This business only grew and grew for them. “By 1967,
Farmland Industries had manufacturing facilities for various kinds of
fertilizer at Lawrence, Kansas; Hastings, Nebraska; Green Bay, Florida; Fort
Dodge, Iowa; Joplin, Missouri, and a plant under construction in Dodge City”
(Fite 281).
From here, Farmland Industries only increased its size, sales, and
dividends, not to mention popularity. Some of the major lines include:
Food Marketing, Feed, Crop Production, Grain, Beef, and Pork. Of course,
there are many, many other lines that the company has produced throughout
the years. Some of these things include: Ful-O-Pep (Union Oil Companys
“Antiknock” gas designed to compete with ethyl), CO-OP tires, Batteries,
Groceries, Canning and Dehydration, Tractors, Paint, Twine, Steel buildings,
and many other successful ventures, along with many other flops.

“Weve been working to improve margins-by lowering costs, by implementing
shared margin programs, by offering prebooking, and contracting programs in
fuel, crop production, products, & feed-and by increasing our emphasis on
providing timely information and other services” (Annual 94 2).

Organizational Culture
Today, Farmland is the largest farmer-owned agricultural input cooperative
in the United States. Its mission is: To be a producer-driven,
customer-focused and profitable “ag supply to consumer foods” cooperative
system (The Farmland Cooperative System 6). The people of Farmland
Industries believe in American agriculture. They believe that everyone
involved in progressive agriculture in America today is entitled to a return
on their investments.
Farmlands world headquarters are located in Kansas City, Missouri. The
city is located on the banks of the Missouri river in western Missouri. The
metropolitan area itself includes four counties in the state of Kansas which
helps make up its population of 1.65 million people (U.S. Bureau of the
Census 1). According to the U.S. Census Bureau, 82.2 percent of this
population are White, 12.7 percent are Black, 3.1 percent are Hispanic, and
1.9 percent include various other Races (1). In 1995, the estimated Kansas
City median household income was $37,841. Thirty-eight percent of the
households in the metro area have an effective buying power (this is the
discretionary income households have after paying off all debts) of more
than $50,000 per year (U.S. Bureau of the Census). Kansas City also boasts
one of the lowest cost of living in major metropolitan areas. It ranked
third among 25 cities with populations above 1.5 million people (U.S. Bureau
of the Census).
There are many exciting things to do once youre in Kansas City.

A thing of beauty is a joy for

‘A thing of beauty is a joy forever’. How far and in what ways does Keats communicate this belief in his odes.

Emotion was the key element of any Romantic poet, the intensity of which is present in all of Keats poems. Keats openly expressed feelings ignoring stylistic rules which suppressed other poets.

Keat’s poems display a therapeutic experience, as many of his Odes show a sense of struggle to accept, and a longing to search for an emotion which he could feed off for his eternity. As romantics emphasised beauty in order to replace the lack of religion. The quote ‘A thing of beauty is a joy forever’, I believe tormented him ever since he wrote ‘Endymion’, the Odes to be discussed are hence almost a progression of thought and understanding of his own beliefs.

‘Ode to Autumn’ is perhaps the greatest of nature poems written , and I can only agree when Cedric Watts wrote that it is a ‘richly resourceful yet alert and unsentimental’. Keats creates a sumptuousness which reflects the beauty he has found in Autumn. The intonation within the first stanza is almost of excitement, as if this beauty has suddenly unleashed itself onto his senses, its effect is more powerful than the drug induced mood in ‘Nightingale’. The first line introduces us to the personified autumn. The exclamatory phrase ‘mellow fruitfulness’ heightens the syntax tone immediately and prepares the reader for a stanza rich in tactile and visual images which intensify this opening.

The beauty of autumn is emphasised through phrases like; ‘ripeness to the core’, ‘swell the gord’, ‘ o’verbrimmed their clammy cells’. Keat’s use of the adjective ‘plump’ as a verb excels this ‘ripeness’ and together intensifies the beauty, which is emphasised through the repetition of ‘more’ and ‘still more’. Keats almost forces his subject at us.

The central stanza is almost a ‘breathing space’ for the reader, to interact with the poem. Keats creates a hypnotic mood almost lethargic. Keats achieves this through his language. The use of ‘carless’ and ‘soft-lifted’. The alliteration of ‘winnowing winds’ and the assonance of ‘sound asleep’, almost attack our aural senses and draws us deep into an almost dream like state: ‘Winnowing wind, or on a half-reaped furrow sound asleep, Drowsed with the fume of poppies’.

The use of ‘drowsed’ is deliberate and for emphasis, to achieve this tiredness, as does the sensual smells of ‘poppies’.

The punctuation emphasises the intonation. The pause after the ‘poppies’ is symbolic as it arouses us and tempts us to smell and hence we are enticed by the drug. The pause after ‘ grannery floor’, reflects the carelessness mentioned and because it’s a natural process to pause after sitting. Keats is helping the reader to visualise Autumn’s movements through the stanza. In this stanza the syntax is longer unlike the first verse. In the line ‘ or by a cider-press, with patient look’ Keats creates balance with the pause, which implies order and emphasises the patience, almost reflecting Keats studied view of Autumn.

The lethargic mood is increased in the second stanza , in the final line with: ‘last oozings hours by hours’, as the vowel sounds soften the syntax, and the repetitive ‘hours’ almost drags the sentence along.

The third stanza’s sudden questions ‘where are th songs of spring? Ay, where are they?’ are too forceful and abrupt from the mood set in the previous stanza, it is almost annoying. It could almost be read as Keats projecting his thoughts, as if he was engulfed in Autumn’s beauty that he forgot ‘spring’. I believe Keats challenges us. We are so taken in with Autumn as he hypnotises our thoughts, that he deliberately breaks our concentration as he too has realised that seasons change and we should change with them. True, spring has its songs, but so does autumn! Keats realises that this beauty will not last forever, as seasons change, but this change brings new beauty.

The onomatopoeia in the third stanza instigates a more active tone , the increasing rhythm almost represents a celebration, for the ‘Wailful choir the small gnats mourn’ is contrasted with the ‘loud bleat’,’hedge-crickets sing’, ‘redbreast whistles’

Marketing test

Ch 5 Consumer behavior- Processes a consumer uses to make purchase decisions, as well as to use and dispose of purchased goods or services. 5 Steps to decision process- need recognition, information search, evaluation of alternative, purchase, post purchase behavior. Need recog- result of an imbalance between actual and desired states. External stimuli is a pic, internal stimuli is a past experience, good or bad. Recognition of unfulfilled wants- when a product isn’t performing properly, when consumer is running out of product, when another product is better than one being used. Info search- internal (memory) and external (tv). EVOKED SET (consideration set)- group of brands, resulting from an information search from which a buyer can choose. Evaluation of alternatives- rank attributes by importance, analyze product attributes, use cut off criteria. Post purchase behavior- Cognitive dissonance inner tension that a consumer experiences after recognizing an inconsistence between behavior and values or opinions. Consumers try to reduce dissonance by justifying their decision. Factors determining the level of consumer involvement- previous experience, interest, perceived risk of negative consequence, situation, social visibility. Underlying cultural, social, individual, and psychological factors strongly influence the decision process. Culture play deepest part of a persons consumer behavior, culture is pervasive, functional, learned, and dynamic, and the most defining element of a culture is values. Marketers are interested in social class for 2 reasons, Social class often indicates which medium to use for advertising, and knowing what products appeal to which social classes. Reference groups- a group in society that influences an individual purchasing behavior. Primary membership group- a reference group with which people interact regularly in an informal, face to face manner. Secondary membership group- A reference group with people associate less consistently and more formally that a primary such as a club, pro group or religious group. Aspirational reference group- A group that someone would like to join. Norm- A value or attitude deemed acceptable by a group. Reference groups have 3 implicatons- serve as info sources and influence perception, affect individual aspiration levels, their norms either constrain or stimulate consumer behavior. Ch 6 Business products- used to manufacture other products, become part of another product, aid the normal operations of an organization, are aquired for resale without change in form. Internet Marketing opportunities- increase efficiency, reduce cost, improve customer service, create 1to1 relationships, introduce new products, expand markets. Benefits of marketing on the net- lower prices, greater selection of products and vendors, access to customer and product sales data, around the clock ordering and customer service, lower cost, customized products. Strategic alliance- 2 companies come together *Always maintain control of your customer list* Some alliances are formed to achieve economies of scale, and to leverage what they have. Keiretsu- a network of interlocking corporate affiliates a bunch of companies linked to holding companies. North American Industry Classification System (NAICS)- A detailed numbering system developed by the US, Canada, and Mexico, to classify North American business establishments by their main production processes. Derived demand- the demand for business products. Inelastic demand- an increase or decrease in the price of the product will not significantly affect demand for the product. Joint Demand- the demand for two or more items used together in a final product. Fluctuating demand Bull Whip Theory/ Multiplier effect- Phenomenon in which a small increase or decrease in the consumer demand can produce a much larger change in demand for the facilities and equipment needed to make the consumer product. Nature of Buying- business buyers usually approach purchasing rather formally. Reciprocity- a practice where business purchaser choose to buy from their own customers. Type of business products- major equip, accessory equip, raw materials, component parts, processed materials, supplies, business services. OEM- means original equipment manufacturer. OEMs buy business goods that they incorporate into the products that they produce for eventual sale to other producers or to consumers. Buying Center-initiator, influencers, gatekeepers (most important decide what goes through) decider, purchaser, users. Evaluation Criteria- Price, service, quality(most important). Buying Situations- New buy, modified rebuy, straight rebuy. CH7: Importance of market segmentation- Markets have a variety of product needs and preferences, marketers can better define customer needs, decision makers can define objectives and allocate resources more accurately. To

The jungle

Book report: The Jungle by: Upton Sinclaire
We can only know things with an experience for them by some means or other. We all know what we do, and we do not know what will happen. Our educated guesses failing at times and being glorified for justification’s sake later. The family in Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle depicts just this by every fiber of their hard working being.
The qualities above present a perfected formula for real freedom. The gaining of knowledge and the failing or success that will happen to us. We can plan all we want, but freedom comes only to those who plan the luckiest.
Take Jurgis (pronounced Yergis) for example. The strongest of the strong men in the world. He could stop a locomotive and beat John Henry in a fistfight. And why is this? He is strong, and his spirit is unconquerable. He’ll just work harder if you give him more work. And what a commodity for his employers! Ever to continue along the drooling style of action, ever in the opposition of mother nature, and ever driven by the idea that he will be supporting his beloved family. To live a life in the youth of the 1900’s, and in America, was the dream of so many people. To escape their tyrannical lands, the places their forefathers called home, to live in a place where it was known that every man was free and able to do his own thing, so long as he didn’t hurt another. Free will, and no one could stop him for doing it. It would seem that a hard worker could go real far.
In this time period such hopes were wasted on capitalism. The shammy American dream struck all those who sought to take residence in its comforting nest, and then thrust them out like so many chicks to learn to fly on their own in a harsh and unforgiving world. No man, on any account of strength could survive and live this dream, unless he was dishonest.
Jurgis was an honest man, and so was his family of Lithuanians. Working harder every day for the same scraps of so many men. The work came, and only because Jurgis could prove his strength. ‘Job’ was the only word he really knew when coming to the stockyards, and so it was his nervous energy that made him get a job. Any discussion of The Jungle should mention the unsanitary conditions in the Chicago meatpacking industry at the turn of the century and the federal legislation that Congress passed as a result of the national furor that Sinclair’s muckraking novel created. However, it is equally important to emphasize that The Jungle was–and is–primarily an indictment of wage slavery. Sinclair’s purpose in writing the novel was to document the inhumane treatment of working men and women in industrial capitalism and to argue that socialism provided the only solution to the problem.

The Jungle is related to literary movements in America. First, the novel comes out of the muckraking era. The Muckrakers–so named by Theodore Roosevelt because they, like the Man with the Muckrake in Pilgrim’s Progress, looked down at the filth and ignored the celestial crown–exposed and attempted to correct graft and corruption in both government and business. He changed many aspects of society in his day and time. He should be looked up to and admired by all, cause without him who knows if we would have gotten this far.