after World War IIDeterioration
of the American-Soviet Relationship after World War II
American and Soviet relations deteriorated
in the decade following World War II. The three factors that had the most
effect on that relationship were the agreements made at the Yalta Conference,
the Korean War, and McCarthyism.
The agreements of the Yalta Conference
began the deterioration of the American-Soviet relationship. Some of the
decisions taken at Yalta pertained to Europe. The most critical of these
had to do with the liberated nations of eastern Europe. Roosevelt and Churchill
rejected Stalin’s proposal that they accept the Lublin government in Poland.
Instead, the three leaders agreed on a reorganization of the Polish
government to include leaders from abroad- this provisional government
to be “pledged to the holding of free and unfettered elections as soon
as possible.” After the war, the Soviet Union set up a puppet government
in Poland and the free elections promised them never surfaced. For liberated
Europe in general, the conference promised “interim governmental authorities
broadly representative of all democratic elements in the population and
pledged to the earliest possible establishment through free elections of
governments responsive to the will of the people.” Stalin agreed to that
concession thinking that the libe4rated European nations would see the
Soviet Union as their saviors and create their own communist governments.
When that did not happen, Stalin wiped out all opposition and set up his
own governments in those areas. With regard to Germany, the conference
postponed decisions on dismemberment and on future frontiers, endorsed
the EAC provisions for zonal occupation. The Yalta discussions also dealt
with the Orient, where the American Joint Chiefs were eager to secure from
Stalin a precise commitment about entering the war. Some feared that Russia
would let the United States undertake a costly invasion of Japan and then
move into Manchuria and China at the last minute to reap the benefits of
victory. In secret discussions with Roosevelt, Stalin agreed to declare
war on Japan within two or three months after the surrender of Germany
on condition that the Kurile Islands and southern Sakhalin be restored
to Russia and that the commercial interest of the Soviet Union in Dairen
(Luda) and its rail communications be recognized. When Roosevelt obtained
the assent of Chiang Kai-shek to these measures, the Soviet Union would
agree “that China shall retain full sovereignty in Manchuria” and would
conclude a treaty of friendship and alliance with the Chiang Kai-shek government.
After the Chinese communists under Mao Zedong gained power, Stalin was
only too eager to break that agreement. He abandoned all ties to the Kai-shek
The Korean War also effected the American-Soviet
relationship. In 1948 the Russians set up a People’s Democratic Republic
in North Korea, while the Americans recognized the Republic of South Korea.
In June 1949 Soviet and American forces withdrew from Korea. Kim Il-sung,
the communist dictator of North Korea, came to Moscow to seek Stalin’s
support for a North Korean invasion of South Korea. Stalin gave Kim his
support. On June 25, 1950, North Korean troops crossed the 38th parallel
in a surprise invasion. Truman wrongly saw the invasion as a Soviet effort
to test the American will. If the United States did not react in Korea,
he believed, the Russians would sponsor similar thrusts elsewhere; and
the result might be a third world war. The Americans saw the Soviet Union
as starting a war in Korea which led to the death of many innocent American
soldiers and they felt hatred for the Soviets.
McCarthyism was running rampant
in the United States and had a profound effect on the American-Soviet relationship.
The Korean war transformed McCarthys crusade form an eccentric sideshow
into a popular movement. If communist were killing American boys in Korea,
why should communists be given the benefit of the doubt in the United States.
People trusted the Soviets less then they ever did. The Rosenbergs were
caught stealing nuclear secrets. Many influential people were accused of
begin communists simply because they had different opinions. Because of
McCarthyism, Congress passed the McCarran Internal Security Act which established
a Subversive Activities Control Board to follow communist activities in
the United States. After the jailing of many supposed Communists, how could
people trust their neighbors or friends. Everyone was suspected of being
a communist and many were brought up on charges. The hysteria spread like
wildfire. It caught on in every town and city. The communists were against
everything America was based on and since the Soviet Union was a communist
country, they couldnt be trusted or ever given the benefit of the doubt.
In Conclusion, the Yalta Conference
agreements, the Korean War, and McCarthyism helped to deteriorate the American-Soviet
relationship in the 1950s.